Историческая судьба «Первого великого открытия» Маркса

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Аннотация

В статье исследуется «Первое великое открытие» Маркса в работах его учеников и последователей. Анализируются предпосылки и причины неприятия экономической доктрины Маркса западными учеными, с одной стороны, и стремительное распространение марксистской философии, с другой. Несистемное восприятие экономического наследия Маркса, абсолютизация в разные периоды развития отдельных опубликованных произведений, их анализ в отрыве от других трудов основателя марксизма привели к определенному упрощению и вульгаризации его взглядов в социал-демократической литературе конца XIX - начала XX в., а также в советской экономической литературе 1920-1980 гг. Особое внимание уделяется анализу произведений последователей Маркса, указывая на их роль, как фактору продвижения, так и вульгаризации его произведений. Изучаются также факторы, которые способствовали примитивизации марксизма. Почему Марксу не повезло с последователями? Прежде всего, кажется, потому, что он искал их среди рабочего класса. Те немногие, кто не происходил из рабочей среды, к сожалению, не имели фундаментального экономического образования. Любой отход от строго экономического объективизма воспринимался не только академическими учеными, но и социал-демократическими теоретиками, как отступление от исторического материализма, отказ от основных заветов марксизма. Механистическое исследование материализма при изучении социально-экономических явлений, ориентация на изучение истории как естественноисторического процесса привело к недооценке социальной практики и ее роли в трансформации и развитии общества. Понимание истории как результата человеческой деятельности осталось в тени. Это характерно не только для Карла Каутского, но и в некоторой степени для крупнейшего философа среди социал-демократов - Плеханова. Распространение марксизма «вширь» произошло в гораздо большей степени, чем это было разрешено существующими экономическими, социальными и культурными условиями стран Восточной Европы. Но сама же российская реальность стала тормозом для распространения марксизма в России «вглубь», для его развития в интегрированной и адекватной первичной форме. Наконец, мы анализируем причины повышенного интереса к научному марксизму в последние годы.

Об авторе

Р. Нуреев
Финансовый университет; Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики»
Россия


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74. A detailed analysis of this provision, see (Nureev, 1984, p. 5)

75. A detailed analysis of this provision, see (Nureev, 1984, p. 5)

76. In this context, it is difficult to agree with Tugan-Baranovsky, that “in the history of philosophy for our Doctor of Philosophy is almost no place” (Tugan-Baranovsky, 1996, p. 203)

77. In this context, it is difficult to agree with Tugan-Baranovsky, that “in the history of philosophy for our Doctor of Philosophy is almost no place” (Tugan-Baranovsky, 1996, p. 203)

78. “Despite the fact that the history of technology and communication technology with the economic process is not written enough great literature, this issue is essentially remained outside the body of a theory. The exceptions are the works of Karl Marx, who tried to combine technological change with institutional changes. Development of Marx on the relationship of the productive forces (by which he usually knew the state of technology) to industrial relations (by which he meant the various aspects of human organization, and especially property rights) was a pioneering effort to connection limits and limitation of technology to the limits of limits of human organization” (North, 1997, p. 168)

79. “He was the first economist of high rank who has seen consistently and who taught others how economic theory can be turned into a historical analysis and a historical narrative can be turned into histoire-raisonnee (justification stories - in french)” (Schumpeter, 1995, pp. 83-84)

80. “We … are suffering not only from the development of capitalist production, but also from a lack of development - Marx wrote in “Capital”. -Along with the disasters of the modern era oppresses us a number of inherited disasters that exist due to the fact that they still languish ancient, exhausted themselves modes of production and related antiquated social and political relations.” (Marx &Engels, Vol. 23, p. 9)


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Для цитирования: Нуреев Р. Историческая судьба «Первого великого открытия» Маркса. Review of Business and Economics Studies. 2017;5(4):5-19.

For citation: Nureev R. The Historical Fateof the ‘First Great Discovery’ of Marx. Review of Business and Economics Studies. 2017;5(4):5-19. (In Russ.)

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