Нет нефти ценой крови. Как Евросоюз может помочь?

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Продолжающаяся холодная война из-за нефти (ее политизация и явная военная вовлеченность) и последующая перегруппировка государств, базирующихся ранее на идеологии, изменились вместе с переориентацией производителей и транзитных стран или на Россию как ресурсного брокера, или на зонтичную группу американских и европейских конгломератов. Топливный конфликт в нынешней терминологии заключается в том, что страны с убогой ресурсной базой стремятся к обеспечению себя во что бы ни стало (как частью национальной безопасности). В то же время, в особенности ЕС, опасаясь сокращения добычи нефти в России, пытается обеспечить себя частично каспийской и ближневосточной нефтью через Средиземное море, Черное море и Индийский океан. Во-вторых, страны с обильными запасами нефти в борьбе за мировой рынок конкурируют с Россией, старающейся восстановить свой региональный статус после поражения в холодной войне. В-третьих, США в своих имперских стремлениях оставаться лидером среди покупателей (косвенная гегемония) ведут борьбу за безопасность поставок и свою исключительность, с желанием остаться «неформальной империей» финансового рынка, осуществлять контроль натуральных ресурсов и потоков международной торговли

Об авторе

Т. Ли. Минг
Тамканский университет
Россия


Список литературы

1. Bahgat, Gawdat “Energy Security: An Interdisciplinary Approach” (U.K.: Wiley, 2011).

2. “Blue Stream Delivers 100-bcm of Gas to Turkey” in LNG World News http://www.lngworldnews.com/blue-stream-delivers-100-bcm-of-gas-to-turkey/ (Accessed February 24, 2017).

3. Corner, Elizabeth. “Nord Stream II Looks to Hire Contractors” in Palladian Publications Ltd. (October 19, 2015) https://www.energyglobal.com/pipelines/project-news/19102015/nord-stream-ii-looks-to-hire-contractors (Accessed December 19, 2015).

4. Dellecker, Adrian and Thomas Gomart, ed. Russian Energy Security and Foreign Policy Brothers to Neighbours (Routledge, 2011).

5. Edelstein, Stephen. The Christian Science Monitor, Why fossil-fuel giants underestimate electric cars, renewable energy http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/In-Gear/2017/0213/Why-fossil-fuel-giants-underestimate-electric-cars-renewable-energy (Accessed February 14, 2017).

6. Engdahl, William. Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order (London, GB: Pluto Press, 2004).

7. “EU Energy Markets in 2014”, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2014 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/2014_energy_market_en_0.pdf (Accessed April 27, 2016).

8. Eurostat, Extra-EU28 imports of petroleum oil, crude and NLG, main trading partners, 2013 May 28, 2014 http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/File: Extra-EU28_imports_of_petroleum_oil,_crude_and_NLG,_main_trading_partners_2013.png#filehistory (Accessed October 14, 2015.

9. Gawdat Bahgat, “Energy Security: An Interdisciplinary Approach” (U.K.: Wiley, 2011).

10. “Gazprom Export Delivery Statistics” http://www.gazpromexport.ru/en/statistics/ (Accessed April 24, 2016)

11. “Gazprom to Open Nord Stream-2 by 2020” in RT.News (June 26, 2015) https:// www.rt.com/business/269923-gazprom-miller-russia-gas/ (October 10, 2015).

12. Goldthau, Andreas “Resurgent Russia? Rethinking Energy Inc.” in Hoover Institution Policy Review (January 29, 2008) http://www.hoover.org/research/resurgent-russia-rethinking-energy-inc (Accessed March 24, 2016).

13. Govella, Kristi and Vinod Aggarwal, eds. “Russian Foreign Policy: Challenging the Western Liberal International Order?” (Springer, 2012).

14. Hafner, Manfred. “Russian Strategy on Infrastructure and Gas Flows to Europe”, in POLINARES working paper n. 73, (December 2012), http://www.polinares.eu/docs/d5-1/polinares_wp5_chapter5_2.pdf (Accessed December 20, 2014).

15. Hause, Gunther and Kernic, Franz, eds. European Security in Transition (Abingdon, Oxon, GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group, 2006).

16. H̐Μưogselius, Per. Red Gas: Russia and The Origins of European Energy Dependence (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

17. Hunte, Fox. “The Geo-Strategical Importance of Afghanistan” (Oct 23 2001) http://everything2.com/title/The+geo-strategical+importance+of+Afghanistan (Accessed February 24, 2015).

18. “Israel Targets Energy Superpower Status”, in Energy Tribune (March 30, 2011), http://www.energytribune.com/7283/israel-targets-energy-superpower-status#sthash.2RWp11qa.szFPXnpU.dpuf (April 21, 2015).

19. Klare, Michael. Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy (Oneworld Publications, 2008) pp. 75, 76; T. S. Eder, China-Russia Relations in Central Asia (Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2014).

20. Kosachev, Konstantin “Do we have a shared future in energy?” in “Pipelines, Politics, and Power: The Future of EU-Russia Energy Relations” in CER2016 http://www.cer.org.uk/publications/archive/report/2008/pipelines-politics-and-power-future-eu-russia-energy-relations (Accessed June 15, 2011) p. 49.

21. Likhachev, Vladimir. “The Role of Energy in Russia’s Relations with Turkey and Iran” in paper presented for The Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey Ankara, International Workshop “The Turkey, Russia, Iran Nexus: Economic and Energy Dimensions” (Accessed March 29, 2012).

22. Lo, Bobo Axis of convenience: Moscow, Beijing and the New Geopolitics (Washington, DC, USA: Brooking Institution Press, 2008).

23. Luft, Gal and Anne Korin, Energy Security Challenges for the 21st Century: A Reference Handbook (Praeger Security International, 2009).

24. MacKenzie, John M The Partition of Africa, 1880-1900 and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (Kentucky, USA: Routledge, 1983) pp. 11-13.

25. Makinde, Adeyinka “Vladimir Putin and the Patterns of Global Power” in Global Research (November 02, 2015) http://www.globalresearch.ca/vladimir-putin-and-the-patterns-of-global-power/5486083?utm_campaign=magnet&utm_source=article_page&utm_medium=related_articles (Accessed March 30, 2016).

26. Matejak, Silvestar. “Nord Stream 2-New Gas Pipeline from Russia to Europe” in e-metallicus (September 9, 2015) http://e-metallicus.com/en/news/eu/nord-stream-2-new-gas-pipeline-from-russia-to-europe.html (October 10, 2015).

27. Mazlum, Ibrahim. Twenty First Century Energy Security Debates: Opportunities and Constraints for Turkey, in Guney, Nursin Atesoglu, ed. Contentious Issues of Security and the Future of Turkey, (Abingdon, Oxon, GBR: Ashgate Publsihing Group, 2007).

28. McCamy, Taylor. “Talking Points on the Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline”, https://moraloutrage.wordpress.com/2010/04/25/talking-points-on-the-trans-afghanistan-pipeline/ (Accessed February 27, 2015).

29. Morales, Javier. “Russia as an Energy Great Power: Consequences for EU Energy Security” in Energy Security Visions from Asia and Europe, Antonio Marquina, ed. (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008).

30. Moran, Daniel and James A. Russell, eds., Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, eds. (New York: Routledge, 2009).

31. Myers Amy Jaffe and R Soligo “Energy Security the Russian Connection” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, Daniel Moran and James A. Russell (Abingdon: Routledge, 2009).

32. Orbán, Anita Power, Energy, and the New Russian Imperialism (Praeger, 2008).

33. “Pacifism” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (substantive revision August 14, 2014).

34. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pacifism/ (Accessed February 15, 2017).

35. Pirani, Simon, ed. Russian and CIS gas Markets and their Impact on Europe (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2009).

36. Raquel Freire, Maria and Roger E. Kanet, eds. “Strategic Security and Russian Resource Diplomacy”, in Russia and Its Near Neighbours: Identity, Interests and Foreign Policy, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

37. Rutland, Peter. “US Energy Policy and the Former Soviet Union: Parallel Tracks” in Our Energy Policy http://www.ourenergypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/US-energy-policy-towards-Russia.pdf (Accessed August 9, 2015).

38. Scramble for Africa” in Wikipedia (last modified December 14,2015) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramble_for_Africa (Accessed January 2, 2016).

39. Shapovalova, Natalia “Ukraine: Lynchpin for European Energy Security”, in Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (July 2008) http://fride.org/download/DB_Ukraine_UE_Lynchpin_ENG_agu_08. pdf (Accessed June 4, 2011).

40. Shaffer, Brenda. Energy Politics (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).

41. Tekin, Ali and Paul Andrew Williams, Geo-politics of the Euro-Asia Energy Nexus: the European Union, Russia and Turkey (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

42. “The Baltic Pipeline System” in Администрации Ленинградской области http://eng.lenobl.ru/economics/investment/principlefederalprojects/Balticoilpipeline (Accessed December 10, 2014).

43. The EU’s Energy Dependence: Facts and Figures” (July 24, 2014) http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/news-room/content/20140718STO53032/html/The-EU%27s-energy-dependence-facts-and-figures (Accessed October 10, 2015).

44. “The Project For A New American Century!” in The 11th Hour http://www.11th-hour.info/Articles/Project_for_a_New_American_Century.html (Accessed March 28, 2016); M. Sussex.

45. Traynor, Ian and Arthur Neslen, “Ambitious EU Blueprint for Energy Union to Loosen Russian Grip on Gas” in Guardian News (February 24, 2015) http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/24/eu-blueprint-energy-union-russian-gas-gazprom-maros-sefcovic (Accessed February 27, 2016).

46. Tsygankov, Andrei P. “Russia in the Post-Western World: the End of Normalization Paradigm?” in Post-Soviet Affairs, Volume 25 Issue 4, October-December 2009 http://china.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2747/1060-586X.24.4.347?journalCode=rpsa20 (Accessed November 18, 2016).

47. Tsygankov, Andrei P. “Russian Policy and Responses from the European Union and the United States” in Responding to a Resurgent Russia, p. 49.

48. Victor, David, Amy Jaffer, and Mark Hage, eds. Natural Gas and Geopolitics from 1970-2040 (Cambridge University press 2006).

49. Wesphal, Kirsten Germany and the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue in Parni Aalto, ed. EU-Russian Energy Dialogue: Europe’s Future Energy Security (Abingdon Oxon, GBR: Ashgate Publishing group, 2007).

50. Winchester, Robert. “European Energy Security Wrestling the Russian Bear for Caspian Natural Gas “ in Program Research Project submitted to U. S. Army War College (June 30, 2007) http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf? AD=ADA471533 (Accessed July 4, 2014).

51. Yergin, Daniel. The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World, (Penguin Books, 2012).


Дополнительные файлы

Для цитирования: Минг Т.Л. Нет нефти ценой крови. Как Евросоюз может помочь? Review of Business and Economics Studies. 2017;5(2):47-57.

For citation: Ming T.L. No More Blood for Oil. How Could EU Help? Review of Business and Economics Studies. 2017;5(2):47-57. (In Russ.)

Просмотров: 10


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2308-944Х (Print)